In my book, "Tinker Dabble Doodle Try: Unlock the Power of the Unfocused Mind" I explain how people like the famous artist Vik Muniz, the iconic chef Jonathan Waxman and the legendary Steve Jobs, all had dabbling histories that made their lives that much richer. For Muniz, early career shifts allowed him to keep moving without being paralyzed. For Waxman, first a musician, then a chef, his latest food venture in musical capital, Nashville, Tennessee, brings it all together. And for Jobs, his early calligraphy class had no significance to him when he took it, yet he later used this when developing fonts for Apple. In fact, even hobbies can protect your brain , especially if you engage in them an hour a day.
Current models of ADHD suggest that it is associated with functional impairments in some of the brain's neurotransmitter systems , particularly those involving dopamine and norepinephrine .   The dopamine and norepinephrine pathways that originate in the ventral tegmental area and locus coeruleus project to diverse regions of the brain and govern a variety of cognitive processes.   The dopamine pathways and norepinephrine pathways which project to the prefrontal cortex and striatum are directly responsible for modulating executive function (cognitive control of behavior), motivation, reward perception, and motor function;    these pathways are known to play a central role in the pathophysiology of ADHD.     Larger models of ADHD with additional pathways have been proposed.   
As students with ADHD are a heterogeneous group, there is no one intervention (or set of interventions) that wili improve the classroom functioning of all of these students. Thus, it is suggested that classroom modifications be tailored to the unique needs of each student. In developing these modifications it is per-haps best to begin by examining how the classroom environment might be changed to set up the student with ADHD for success. The next step is to consider the implementation of a contingency management system designed to provide external incentives for appropriate classroom behaviors. In doing so it is important to remember that behavior management programs must be consistently applied. Further, it is essential to avoid excessive use of negative consequences (such as reprimands, time-out). In all cost programs, it is important to avoid the use of unrealistic standards that result in excessive point or privilege loss. Students must experience success. In other words, it is essential that students be frequently reinforced for what we want them to do, rather than simply punished for what we do not want them to do.