In Spain , middle school roughly corresponds to the four-year Educación Secundaria Obligatoria or Compulsory Secondary Education (ESO), from age 12 to 16 (or 11 to 15, depending on the birth date). It is divided in two cycles of three and one year with its own grading, from 1st to 4th of ESO. The second cycle (4th of ESO) contains two options: one geared towards the Spanish Baccalaureate (equivalent to high school), which is similar to the 1st year of high school in other countries, and the other towards vocational training.  
Compared to other extracurricular activities, however, athletics does not appear to produce as strong a positive correlation. Darling et al. (2005) found that students who did not participate in any extracurricular activities showed the poorest adjustment as far as grades, attitude toward school, and academic aspirations, while non-sport extracurricular activities showed the most positive adjustment, with sports related extracurricular activities in the middle (Para. 40). Guest and Schneider (2003) reported similar results, saying, “In all schools, participation in non-sports extracurricular activities has a stronger association with being seen as a good student than does participation in sports” (Para. 36).