During the early 1950s, public opinion polls revealed that blacks were generally optimistic that their condition would improve markedly within a short time. From 1947 to 1954, according to a United States Census study, the median income of black families more than doubled, while increasing numbers of blacks attended college. Yet those gains were largely confined to the black middle class, who were also the main supporters of such established and “traditional” civil rights organizations as the NUL and the NAACP (Some critics remarked that the second acronym stood for the “National Association for the Advancement of Certain people”). Within the South, however, there were signs that a more militant black leadership was emerging that was also beginning to attract mass support.
The prevailing view  among historians is that Luther's anti-Jewish rhetoric contributed significantly to the development of antisemitism in Germany,  and in the 1930s and 1940s provided an ideal foundation for the Nazi Party 's attacks on Jews.  Reinhold Lewin writes that "whoever wrote against the Jews for whatever reason believed he had the right to justify himself by triumphantly referring to Luther." According to Michael, just about every anti-Jewish book printed in the Third Reich contained references to and quotations from Luther. Diarmaid MacCulloch argues that Luther's 1543 pamphlet On the Jews and Their Lies was a "blueprint" for the Kristallnacht .  Shortly after the Kristallnacht, Martin Sasse, Bishop of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Thuringia , published a compendium of Martin Luther 's writings ; Sasse "applauded the burning of the synagogues" and the coincidence of the day, writing in the introduction, "On November 10, 1938, on Luther's birthday, the synagogues are burning in Germany." The German people, he urged, ought to heed these words "of the greatest anti-Semite of his time, the warner of his people against the Jews." 
The greatly expanded second edition is known as the Toscolana, for the town in Northern Italy where Paganini had his press. There are many more prefatory pieces (see list below), and the Baldus is now twice as long (12,668 hexameters). 51 woodcut prints illustrate the story nicely. Additionally there many more eclogues, a mock-epic between flies and ants, a list of errors corrected, a table of contents, a sonnet, and more. Each page is packed: there are 37 lines per page on a smaller area of print than the 1517 edition. About 100 copies of this edition are still in existence today. Some of these also feature a dialogue about the poet and letters from him to and from the editor.