Does prostatitis lead to prostate cancer? Prostate diseases tend to occur in order with prostatitis first, BPH second, and finally prostate cancer. Prostatitis starts in young men who can be in their teens, 20s, 30s, or 40s. BPH tends to occur in men over age 50 and prostate cancer is most often diagnosed in men in their 60s or 70s. So, does prostatitis lead to prostate cancer? One study showed an increased risk of prostate cancer in men with symptomatic prostatitis. See: Nakarta S: Study of risk factors for prostatic cancer. Hinyokika Kiyo 1993;39(11):1017-1024. Another study found that: "The relative odds of prostate cancer were elevated in men with history of any type of prostatitis." But the study was not good enough to be conclusive. See: Roberts RO, Bergstralh EJ, Bass SE, Lieber MM, Jacobsen SJ. Prostatitis as a risk factor for prostate cancer. Epidemiology. 2004 Jan;15(1):93-9. Another study found that: "Inflammation is frequently present in prostate biopsies, radical prostatectomy specimens and tissue resected for treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia." See: Platz EA, De Marzo AM. Epidemiology of inflammation and prostate cancer. J Urol. 2004 Feb;171(2 Pt 2):S36-40. Another study decided to look at whether antiinflammatories to curb prostatitis, . inflammation of the prostate, might help treat prostate cancer. See: Pruthi RS, Derksen JE, Moore D. A pilot study of use of the cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor celecoxib in recurrent prostate cancer after definitive radiation therapy or radical prostatectomy. BJU Int. 2004 Feb;93(3):275-8. See also this talk: "Sexually Transmitted Infections and Prostatitis in the Etiology of Prostate Cancer and Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia," an Epidemiology thesis defense seminar with Siobhan Sutcliff; W4013 SPH. EB Johns Hopkins Gazette http:///~gazette/2005/07mar05/ Prostatitis is often found when prostate cancer is removed. See: Distribution of chronic prostatitis in radical prostatectomy specimens with up-regulation of bcl-2 in areas of inflammation. Gerstenbluth RE, Seftel AD, MacLennan GT, Rao RN, Corty EW, Ferguson K, Resnick MI. J Urol. 2002 May;167(5):2267-70.
There are currently four main treatment methods for prostate cancer, radiation therapy, surgery, hormonal manipulations and watchful waiting. Chemotherapy has not been proven to be an effective treatment for prostate cancer. They type of treatment that is most appropriate depends upon the grade and stage of growth of the tumor itself. It also depends on the health and age of the individual. Watchful waiting, or expectant therapy, is typically recommended for older men and those who already have other health problems, as long as the tumor is not producing symptoms or expected to grow too quickly (Porth, 2011, p. 1027). Surgery, typically radical prostatectomy, is used to treat prostate cancer by removing the seminal vesicles, prostate and ampullae of the vas deferens. Thanks to new refinements in surgical techniques, including nerve-sparing prostatectomy, in many continence and erectile function has been spared in those undergoing surgery for prostate cancer. Another common treatment for prostate cancer is radiation therapy, in which a small external beam of radiation is focused on the tumor to shrink and kill it. Finally, hormone therapy is also being used as a way to treat prostate cancer. Hormone therapy relies on a variety of techniques to reduce testosterone levels, a hormone which stimulates tumor growth (Porth, 2011, p. 1027).