Administration of the combined vaccine instead of separate vaccines decreases the risk of children catching the disease while waiting for full immunisation coverage.  The combined vaccine's two injections results in less pain and distress to the child than the six injections required by separate vaccines, and the extra clinic visits required by separate vaccinations increases the likelihood of some being delayed or missed altogether;   vaccination uptake significantly increased in the UK when MMR was introduced in 1988.  Health professionals have heavily criticized media coverage of the controversy for triggering a decline in vaccination rates.  There is no scientific basis for preferring separate vaccines, or for using any particular interval between separate vaccines. 
This study was performed by computer scientists at CNRS, Inria Nancy-Grand Est, Inria Paris-Rocquencourt, Microsoft Research, Johns Hopkins University, University of Michigan, and the University of Pennsylvania: David Adrian , Karthikeyan Bhargavan , Zakir Durumeric , Pierrick Gaudry , Matthew Green , J. Alex Halderman , Nadia Heninger , Drew Springall , Emmanuel Thomé , Luke Valenta , Benjamin VanderSloot , Eric Wustrow , Santiago Zanella-Beguelin , and Paul Zimmermann . The team can be contacted at [email protected] .