The deepest problems of modern life flow from the attempt of the individual to maintain the independence and individuality of his existence against the sovereign powers of society, against the weight of the historical heritage and the external culture and technique of life. The antagonism represents the most modern form of the conflict which primitive man must carry on with nature for his own bodily existence. The eighteenth century may have called for liberation from all the ties which grew up historically in politics, in religion, in morality and in economics in order to permit the original natural virtue of man, which is equal in everyone, to develop without inhibition; the nineteenth century may have sought to promote, in addition to man's freedom, his individuality (which is connected with the division of labor) and his achievements which make him unique and indispensable but which at the same time make him so much the more dependent on the complementary activity of others; Nietzsche may have seen the relentless struggle of the individual as the prerequisite for his full development, while socialism found the same thing in the suppression of all competition - but in each of these the same fundamental motive was at work, namely the resistance of the individual to being levelled, swallowed up in the social-technological mechanism.
GNERAL SECONDARY READING
BACKGROUND AND HISTORY OF THE GENRE
Discussions of 19th-century American literary precursors to the hard-boiled school:
— Richard Slotkin's Gunfighter Nation (1992),
— David S. Reynolds's Beneath the American Renaissance (1988)
— Leslie Fiedler's Love and Death in the American Novel (1960)
— Frank MacShane's, The Life of Raymond Chandler (1976)
— Diane Johnson, Dashiell Hammett: A Life (1983)
— Ron Goulart, The Dime Detectives (1988)
— Tom Naremore, "Modernism and Blood Melodrama" in More Than Night (1998)
THE INFLUENCE OF PSYCHOANALYSIS
1. On Psychoanalysis and Narrative Form
— Steven Marcus, "Freud and Dora: Story, History, Case History" in Freud and the Culture of Psychoanalysis (1987)
— Frederick Hoflman, Freudianism and the Literary Mind (1957)
2. On "the Psychopath"
— Hervey M. Cleckley, "Psychopathic States," American Handbook of Psychiatry, v. 1 (1959)
FORMAL ASPECTS OF THE GENRE
1. Narrative form
— The Art of the Mystery Story (1946) [a collection of essays]
— Frank Kermode, "Recognition and Deception" and "Secrets and Narrative Sequence" in The Art of Telling (1983)
— D. A. Miller, The Novel and The Police (1992)
— Franco Moretti, "Clues" in Signs Taken for Wonders (1988)
— Peter Messent, "From Private Eye to Police Procedural The Logic of Contemporary Crime Fiction" in Criminal Proceedings: The Contemporary American Crime Novel (1997)
— Raymond Chandler, "Notes on the Mystery Novel," "The Simple Art of Murder"
— Nathaniel West, "Notes on Violence"
— [hard-boiled poetry as a stylistic development in American letters]
— H. L. Mencken, "American Slang" The American Language, v 1
— Richard Poirier, A World Elsewhere: The Place of Style in American Literature (1966)
— Harry Levine, "Observation on the Style of Ernest Hemingway" and Sean O' Faolain, "A Clean Well-Lighted Place" in Hemingway, ed. Robert Weeks (1962)
ON THE THEME OF THE METROPOLIS
— Georg Simmel, "The Metropolis and Mental Life" in The Sociology of Georg Simmel
— Carl Shorske, "The Idea of the City in European Thought: Voltaire to Spengler" (1979)
— Walter Benjamin, "On Some Motifs in Baudelaire," "One Way Street," "Paris, Capital of the Nineteenth Century," Illuminations
— Terry Curtis Fox, "City Nights," Film Comment 20:6 (October 1994)
— Mike Davis, "Sunshine or Noir?" City of Quartz.
— Sally R. Munt, "Masculinity and Masquerade or `Is That a Gun in Your Pocket?' Mainstream Women Crime Writers" In Murder by the Book? Feminism and the Crime Novel (1994)
— Kathleen Gregory Klein, The Woman Detective: Gender and Genre (1995), principally ch. 6 "The Hard-boiled Private Eye and Her Classical Competition"
— George Stade, "Perverse Reflections in a Private Eye"
— Patrick O'Donnell, "Engendering Paranoia in Contemporary Narrative," boundary 2, 19/1 (1992):179-204