During the Middle Ages in Europe and the Middle East there was much armed conflict between Christians and Muslims. Christians called these conflicts the Crusades because they were fighting under the sign of the cross to save the holy lands of the Bible from being desecrated by non-Christians. However, the true reason for fighting for these lands was less than holy. It was mainly a desire for economic gain that prompted the Christian leaders to send soldiers to fight in the Holy Land.
• Material which locates THE RESEARCHER . Some disciplines in some countries have a convention of always beginning the thesis with a personal narrative which shows the examiner how they are implicated in the research. This is particularly the case in professional doctorates which arise from practice, and with research warrants that are located in a professional practice. However, some supervisors and examiners hold that the researcher always needs to state up front how you are in the research, something you take up later when you talk about reflexivity as part of your methodology.