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Norman H. Clark, The Dry Years: Prohibition & Social Change in Washington , revised edition (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1988); Abigail Scott Duniway, Path Breaking: An Autobiographical History of the Equal Suffrage Movement in Pacific Coast States (New York: Schocken Books, 1971); Roger Sale, Seattle Past To Present (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1976); Don Brazier, History of the Washington Legislature 1854-1963 (Olympia: Washington State Senate, 2000); Charles Merz, The Dry Decade (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1969); New York Chamber of Commerce, Sixtieth Annual Report of the Corporation of the Chamber of Commerce of the State of New York for the year 1917-1918 (New York: Press of the Chamber of Commerce, 1918), 34-41; Jon Owen Nuxoll, "A Comparitive Study Of The Liquor Question In Whitman And Skagit Counties, Washington, 1855-1917" (master's thesis, University of Washington, May 30, 1988); Online Encyclopedia of Washington State History, "Washington State Constitutional Convention delegates frame a constitution stipulating that voters must be male, but append separate woman suffrage and Prohibition amendments, on August 17, 1889" (by Paula Becker) and "Olmstead, Roy (1886-1966) -- King of King County Bootleggers" (by Daryl C. McClary) and "Wine in Washington State" (by Peter Blecha) and "Blue Laws -- Washington State" (by Peter LeSourd) http:/// (accessed October 22, 2010); Ronald Simonds Green Jr., "Prohibitions And The Historians" (master's thesis, University of Washington, August 1970); Kenneth David Rose, "Prohibition In Disarray: The Liquor Issues of 1924 In Seattle, San Francisco, Los Angeles And the National Democratic Convention" (master's thesis, University of Washington, May 29, 1985); Ronald Irvine, The Wine Project (Vashon: Sketch Publications, 1997), 122-127; "Washington Bone Dry Act, Referendum 10 (1918)," BallotPedia website accessed October 29, 2010 (http://); W. J. Rorabaugh, "The Origins of the Washington State Liquor Control Board, 1934" Pacific Northwest Quarterly, Fall 2009. p. 159; J. W. Gilbert, "Gilbert Says: State Liquor Stores Seem Certain; Revenue May Be Disappointing," The Seattle Daily Times, January 5, 1934, p. 2; "Steele Law .; Regent, Insurance Bills Killed," Ibid., January 24, 1934, p. 1; Laws of Washington Territory Enacted by the Legislative Assembly In The Year 1879 (Olympia: C. B. Bagley, 1879), p. 249; Melissa Alison, "Liquor: 1 Down, 1 Still Alive," The Seattle Times, November 3, 2010, p. A-6; Melissa Alison, "Second liquor-sales measure defeated," Ibid., November 4, 2010, p. A-4; Allison, "Costco 'Grateful' $ Campaign Paid Off; Distributors, Smaller Businesses Aren't Happy," The Seattle Times, November 9, 2011 (http://).
Note: This essay replaces an earlier essay on the same subject. It was emended slightly on November 22, 2011, and updated on March 5, 2012.
As the indemnification vote showed, the Deep State does not consist only of government agencies. What is euphemistically called “private enterprise” is an integral part of its operations. In a special series in The Washington Post called “ Top Secret America ,” Dana Priest and William K. Arkin described the scope of the privatized Deep State and the degree to which it has metastasized after the September 11 attacks. There are now 854,000 contract personnel with top-secret clearances — a number greater than that of top-secret-cleared civilian employees of the government. While they work throughout the country and the world, their heavy concentration in and around the Washington suburbs is unmistakable: Since 9/11, 33 facilities for top-secret intelligence have been built or are under construction. Combined, they occupy the floor space of almost three Pentagons — about 17 million square feet. Seventy percent of the intelligence community’s budget goes to paying contracts. And the membrane between government and industry is highly permeable: The Director of National Intelligence, James R. Clapper , is a former executive of Booz Allen Hamilton, one of the government’s largest intelligence contractors. His predecessor as director, Admiral Mike McConnell , is the current vice chairman of the same company; Booz Allen is 99 percent dependent on government business. These contractors now set the political and social tone of Washington, just as they are increasingly setting the direction of the country, but they are doing it quietly, their doings unrecorded in the Congressional Record or the Federal Register , and are rarely subject to congressional hearings.