A dissertation can test a very broad range of hypotheses, depending on the discipline and focus of the writer. For example Antoinette Hill from Our Lady of the Lake University lent her research hypothesis to the title of her dissertation, "Are There Differences in Leadership Styles at Local, State, and National/Federal Levels among Advocates for People with Disabilities?" Her hypothesis used leadership as the independent variable and level of advocacy for people with disabilities as the dependent variable. Simply looking through the titles of dissertations published at a university of college each year can provide a long list of examples of a variety of hypotheses and ways to present them.
Let's review. A hypothesis is a speculation or theory, based on insufficient evidence that lends itself to further testing and experimentation. With further testing, a hypothesis can usually be proven true or false. A null hypothesis is a hypothesis that says there is no statistical significance between the two variables. It is usually the hypothesis a researcher or experimenter will try to disprove or discredit. An alternative hypothesis is one that states there is a statistically significant relationship between two variables. It is usually the hypothesis a researcher or experimenter is trying to prove or has already proven.
Proponents of the EMH conclude that, because of the randomness of the market, investors could do better by investing in a low-cost, passive portfolio. Data compiled by Morningstar Inc. through its June 2015 Active/Passive Barometer study supports the conclusion. Morningstar compared active managers’ returns in all categories against a composite made of related index funds and exchange-traded funds (ETFs). The study found that year-over-year, only two groups of active managers successfully outperformed passive funds more than 50% of the time. These were . small growth funds and diversified emerging markets funds.